Method

first Real-time Low complexity Precision Sparse Scene-flow [RLPSSF]


Submitted on 18 Mar. 2022 12:29 by
fatemeh abbasi (amirkabir university)

Running time:2.5 s
Environment:8 core @ 2.5 Ghz (Matlab)

Method Description:
Scene-flow is a fundamental concept for scene understanding and autonomous control. Most of the previous methods in scene-flow estimation are not robust in all environments and cannot be applied for real-time applications such as autonomous driving systems. Although some of these methods are precise, but have a high computational cost or use GPU. In this paper, a new robust, real-time, high precision, and low computational cost scene-flow method is proposed for all environments (indoor and outdoor). In this paper by using stereo-calibrated frames, sparse optical flow such as LKT algorithm, a new fast inlier detection module based on the spatial correlation analysis, and modified circular matching techniques, a new sparse scene flow method on CPU was proposed. Our method has been evaluated with KITTI data-set and the results were confirmed by this reference group independently.
Parameters:
nothing
Latex Bibtex:
@article{2274206,
title={Real-time Low complexity Precision Sparse Scene-flow},
author={Erfan salehi,Ali aghagolzadeh and Reshad hoseuni},
journal={International journal of computer vision},
year={2022}}

Detailed Results

This page provides detailed results for the method(s) selected. For the first 20 test images, the percentage of erroneous pixels is depicted in the table. We use the error metric described in Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles (CVPR 2015), which considers a pixel to be correctly estimated if the disparity or flow end-point error is <3px or <5% (for scene flow this criterion needs to be fulfilled for both disparity maps and the flow map). Underneath, the left input image, the estimated results and the error maps are shown (for disp_0/disp_1/flow/scene_flow, respectively). The error map uses the log-color scale described in Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles (CVPR 2015), depicting correct estimates (<3px or <5% error) in blue and wrong estimates in red color tones. Dark regions in the error images denote the occluded pixels which fall outside the image boundaries. The false color maps of the results are scaled to the largest ground truth disparity values / flow magnitudes.

Test Set Average

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 56.60 73.05 59.34 58.86 74.41 61.45 70.68 73.60 71.17 76.21 81.62 77.11
All / Est 0.38 0.45 0.39 0.42 0.53 0.44 0.19 0.09 0.18 0.57 0.72 0.59
Noc / All 56.22 72.46 58.90 51.66 72.17 55.33 65.47 71.92 66.64 71.55 79.87 73.04
Noc / Est 0.38 0.45 0.39 0.42 0.53 0.44 0.19 0.09 0.18 0.57 0.72 0.59
This table as LaTeX

Test Image 0

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 40.89 78.57 46.06 43.05 80.96 48.26 76.75 87.77 78.26 79.83 94.24 81.81
All / Est 0.51 0.00 0.49 0.48 0.00 0.47 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.55 0.00 0.54
Noc / All 40.59 78.57 45.89 37.21 80.96 43.98 73.88 87.77 75.98 76.79 94.24 79.49
Noc / Est 0.51 0.00 0.49 0.48 0.00 0.47 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.55 0.00 0.54
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 1

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 27.91 80.71 33.81 33.89 84.84 39.58 62.48 85.22 65.02 65.20 91.58 68.14
All / Est 1.94 0.00 1.87 1.56 0.00 1.50 0.12 0.22 0.12 2.37 0.22 2.29
Noc / All 27.22 80.71 33.27 27.71 84.84 34.92 57.99 85.22 61.36 60.07 91.58 64.05
Noc / Est 1.94 0.00 1.87 1.56 0.00 1.50 0.12 0.22 0.12 2.37 0.22 2.29
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 2

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 41.27 59.66 42.16 44.68 64.24 45.63 79.18 69.14 78.69 82.25 83.41 82.31
All / Est 0.45 0.00 0.39 0.55 0.00 0.48 0.17 0.00 0.15 0.55 0.00 0.48
Noc / All 40.38 59.66 41.33 32.83 64.24 34.70 74.83 69.14 74.49 78.05 83.41 78.37
Noc / Est 0.45 0.00 0.39 0.55 0.00 0.48 0.17 0.00 0.15 0.55 0.00 0.48
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 3

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 61.58 75.46 62.86 63.83 94.41 66.66 82.76 100.00 84.36 85.20 100.00 86.57
All / Est 1.04 0.00 1.04 0.84 0.00 0.84 0.02 0.00 0.02 1.25 0.00 1.25
Noc / All 61.27 75.46 62.59 55.93 91.59 58.44 79.02 100.00 80.83 81.69 100.00 82.98
Noc / Est 1.04 0.00 1.04 0.84 0.00 0.84 0.02 0.00 0.02 1.25 0.00 1.25
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 4

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 65.68 90.42 69.78 68.27 92.77 72.33 84.97 94.60 86.56 86.44 95.04 87.87
All / Est 0.20 0.00 0.18 0.18 0.00 0.16 0.18 0.00 0.16 0.43 0.00 0.38
Noc / All 65.19 90.42 69.45 62.05 91.61 67.14 82.00 94.41 84.32 83.52 94.24 85.37
Noc / Est 0.20 0.00 0.18 0.18 0.00 0.16 0.18 0.00 0.16 0.43 0.00 0.38
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 5

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 52.14 56.14 52.50 53.81 56.54 54.06 79.55 19.69 74.16 83.39 64.81 81.72
All / Est 0.09 0.00 0.06 0.17 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.12
Noc / All 51.08 56.14 51.54 45.53 56.54 46.70 76.26 19.69 70.44 80.10 64.81 78.48
Noc / Est 0.09 0.00 0.06 0.17 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.12
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 6

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 50.66 39.15 49.44 53.84 42.44 52.64 75.28 30.30 70.54 80.33 49.30 77.06
All / Est 0.55 0.00 0.36 0.59 0.00 0.39 0.42 0.00 0.28 0.61 0.00 0.40
Noc / All 50.54 39.15 49.32 49.66 42.44 48.78 71.74 30.30 66.80 76.84 49.30 73.49
Noc / Est 0.55 0.00 0.36 0.59 0.00 0.39 0.42 0.00 0.28 0.61 0.00 0.40
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 7

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 16.86 81.44 29.50 16.82 81.47 29.48 3.46 94.39 21.26 20.05 94.39 34.60
All / Est 0.25 0.00 0.24 0.24 0.00 0.23 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.29 0.00 0.29
Noc / All 17.01 81.44 29.79 16.97 80.45 29.00 3.46 94.06 20.40 20.25 94.06 34.24
Noc / Est 0.25 0.00 0.24 0.24 0.00 0.23 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.29 0.00 0.29
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 8

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 18.91 61.35 26.74 18.89 61.35 26.73 0.45 73.85 14.00 19.66 73.85 29.66
All / Est 0.16 0.00 0.14 0.16 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.52 0.03 0.17 0.52 0.19
Noc / All 18.89 61.35 26.73 18.88 61.35 26.72 0.45 73.85 14.00 19.64 73.85 29.66
Noc / Est 0.16 0.00 0.14 0.16 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.52 0.03 0.17 0.52 0.19
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 9

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 21.16 81.42 36.55 21.32 81.50 36.69 0.00 84.58 21.61 21.46 84.58 37.59
All / Est 0.07 0.00 0.07 0.10 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.09
Noc / All 21.37 83.11 36.75 21.53 83.21 36.89 0.00 84.58 21.61 21.68 86.31 37.77
Noc / Est 0.07 0.00 0.07 0.10 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.09
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 10

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 33.13 53.84 37.86 35.00 59.33 40.56 57.07 72.92 60.69 60.29 77.02 64.11
All / Est 0.85 0.00 0.71 1.36 0.00 1.13 0.54 0.00 0.45 1.41 0.00 1.18
Noc / All 32.79 53.84 37.64 25.19 61.43 34.39 49.55 72.92 55.62 52.62 75.82 58.51
Noc / Est 0.85 0.00 0.71 1.36 0.00 1.13 0.54 0.00 0.45 1.41 0.00 1.18
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 11

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 39.55 62.61 43.69 42.18 73.97 47.89 59.59 84.68 64.09 60.92 90.24 66.18
All / Est 0.10 0.00 0.09 0.14 0.00 0.13 0.06 0.00 0.06 0.14 0.00 0.13
Noc / All 39.17 62.61 43.41 33.73 71.97 41.02 53.53 84.66 59.80 54.42 89.39 61.08
Noc / Est 0.10 0.00 0.09 0.14 0.00 0.13 0.06 0.00 0.06 0.14 0.00 0.13
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 12

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 49.81 43.60 49.39 52.27 45.76 51.84 73.49 51.24 71.99 75.25 57.54 74.06
All / Est 0.11 0.00 0.09 0.14 0.00 0.12 0.33 0.15 0.31 0.36 0.15 0.34
Noc / All 49.52 43.60 49.12 43.00 45.76 43.22 68.44 51.24 67.07 70.16 57.54 69.14
Noc / Est 0.11 0.00 0.09 0.14 0.00 0.12 0.33 0.15 0.31 0.36 0.15 0.34
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 13

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 49.97 67.35 52.11 52.53 85.44 56.57 70.63 100.00 74.24 72.53 100.00 75.90
All / Est 0.23 0.00 0.23 0.27 0.00 0.27 0.06 0.00 0.06 0.32 0.00 0.32
Noc / All 49.60 67.35 51.80 42.49 82.20 46.33 64.53 100.00 68.66 66.38 100.00 69.63
Noc / Est 0.23 0.00 0.23 0.27 0.00 0.27 0.06 0.00 0.06 0.32 0.00 0.32
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 14

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 47.74 69.20 48.11 51.82 72.79 52.18 69.52 84.99 69.79 70.83 86.51 71.10
All / Est 0.08 0.00 0.07 0.13 0.00 0.13 0.14 0.00 0.14 0.27 0.00 0.26
Noc / All 47.49 69.20 47.87 42.29 72.79 42.94 63.66 84.99 64.10 64.86 86.51 65.32
Noc / Est 0.08 0.00 0.07 0.13 0.00 0.13 0.14 0.00 0.14 0.27 0.00 0.26
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 15

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 67.19 77.77 68.15 70.10 78.56 70.86 89.11 81.68 88.44 90.46 85.84 90.04
All / Est 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.05 0.90 0.00 0.71 0.93 0.00 0.73
Noc / All 67.14 77.77 68.12 63.00 78.56 64.84 86.31 81.68 85.77 88.32 85.84 88.02
Noc / Est 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.05 0.90 0.00 0.71 0.93 0.00 0.73
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 16

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 68.96 99.01 73.39 70.36 99.89 74.70 86.40 100.00 88.40 87.57 100.00 89.40
All / Est 0.89 0.00 0.89 1.12 0.00 1.12 0.23 0.00 0.23 1.29 0.00 1.29
Noc / All 68.88 99.01 73.35 61.88 99.89 68.91 82.73 100.00 85.83 83.65 100.00 86.68
Noc / Est 0.89 0.00 0.89 1.12 0.00 1.12 0.23 0.00 0.23 1.29 0.00 1.29
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 17

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 55.63 67.05 56.82 61.00 87.18 63.73 81.01 88.91 81.83 83.03 91.99 83.97
All / Est 0.53 0.00 0.48 0.57 0.00 0.52 0.93 0.00 0.85 1.17 0.00 1.07
Noc / All 55.19 67.05 56.44 51.69 87.18 56.37 75.83 88.91 77.52 77.98 91.99 79.83
Noc / Est 0.53 0.00 0.48 0.57 0.00 0.52 0.93 0.00 0.85 1.17 0.00 1.07
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 18

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 58.93 100.00 78.44 60.41 100.00 79.22 79.36 100.00 89.17 80.45 100.00 89.74
All / Est 0.25 0.00 0.25 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.34 0.00 0.34 0.59 0.00 0.59
Noc / All 58.32 100.00 78.31 47.18 100.00 58.29 72.52 100.00 80.10 73.76 100.00 79.28
Noc / Est 0.25 0.00 0.25 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.34 0.00 0.34 0.59 0.00 0.59
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 19

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 54.82 89.32 58.73 56.69 92.66 60.76 77.28 91.26 78.86 78.61 93.54 80.30
All / Est 0.20 0.00 0.19 0.23 0.00 0.21 0.20 0.00 0.19 0.23 0.00 0.21
Noc / All 54.23 89.32 58.26 43.37 92.66 50.62 69.90 91.26 72.99 71.11 93.54 74.41
Noc / Est 0.20 0.00 0.19 0.23 0.00 0.21 0.20 0.00 0.19 0.23 0.00 0.21
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error




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