Method

Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles [OSF]
http://www.cvlibs.net/projects/objectsceneflow

Submitted on 24 Jul. 2015 15:37 by
Andreas Geiger (MPI Tübingen)

Running time:50 min
Environment:1 core @ 2.5 Ghz (C/C++)

Method Description:
This paper proposes a novel model and dataset for 3D scene flow estimation with an application to autonomous driving. Taking advantage of the fact that outdoor scenes often decompose into a small number of independently moving objects, we represent each element in the scene by its rigid motion parameters and each superpixel by a 3D plane as well as an index to the corresponding object. This minimal representation increases robustness and leads to a discrete-continuous CRF where the data term decomposes into pairwise potentials between superpixels and objects. Moreover, our model intrinsically segments the scene into its constituting dynamic components. We demonstrate the performance of our model on existing benchmarks as well as a novel realistic dataset with scene flow ground truth. We obtain this dataset by annotating 400 dynamic scenes from the KITTI raw data collection using detailed 3D CAD models for all vehicles in motion. Our experiments also reveal novel challenges which cannot be handled by existing methods.
Parameters:
See paper and supplementary material.
Latex Bibtex:
@INPROCEEDINGS{Menze2015CVPR,
author = {Moritz Menze and Andreas Geiger},
title = {Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles},
booktitle = {Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
year = {2015}
}

Detailed Results

This page provides detailed results for the method(s) selected. For the first 20 test images, the percentage of erroneous pixels is depicted in the table. We use the error metric described in Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles (CVPR 2015), which considers a pixel to be correctly estimated if the disparity or flow end-point error is <3px or <5% (for scene flow this criterion needs to be fulfilled for both disparity maps and the flow map). Underneath, the left input image, the estimated results and the error maps are shown (for disp_0/disp_1/flow/scene_flow, respectively). The error map uses the log-color scale described in Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles (CVPR 2015), depicting correct estimates (<3px or <5% error) in blue and wrong estimates in red color tones. Dark regions in the error images denote the occluded pixels which fall outside the image boundaries. The false color maps of the results are scaled to the largest ground truth disparity values / flow magnitudes.

Test Set Average

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 4.54 12.03 5.79 5.45 19.41 7.77 5.62 22.17 8.37 7.01 28.76 10.63
All / Est 4.54 12.03 5.79 5.45 19.41 7.77 5.62 22.17 8.37 7.01 28.76 10.63
Noc / All 4.14 11.12 5.29 4.49 16.33 6.61 4.21 18.65 6.83 5.52 24.58 8.93
Noc / Est 4.14 11.12 5.29 4.49 16.33 6.61 4.21 18.65 6.83 5.52 24.58 8.93
This table as LaTeX

Test Image 0

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 3.84 3.72 3.82 4.04 3.85 4.01 2.34 84.24 13.58 4.21 84.24 15.20
All / Est 3.84 3.72 3.82 4.04 3.85 4.01 2.34 84.24 13.58 4.21 84.24 15.20
Noc / All 3.38 3.72 3.43 3.54 3.85 3.59 1.96 84.24 14.44 3.74 84.24 16.20
Noc / Est 3.38 3.72 3.43 3.54 3.85 3.59 1.96 84.24 14.44 3.74 84.24 16.20
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 1

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 4.02 15.13 5.26 4.32 15.10 5.53 3.47 35.12 7.01 4.71 35.66 8.17
All / Est 4.02 15.13 5.26 4.32 15.10 5.53 3.47 35.12 7.01 4.71 35.66 8.17
Noc / All 3.62 15.13 4.92 4.02 15.10 5.42 3.04 35.12 7.00 4.26 35.66 8.22
Noc / Est 3.62 15.13 4.92 4.02 15.10 5.42 3.04 35.12 7.00 4.26 35.66 8.22
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 2

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 4.27 3.62 4.24 4.52 3.13 4.45 3.66 5.58 3.75 4.90 5.58 4.93
All / Est 4.27 3.62 4.24 4.52 3.13 4.45 3.66 5.58 3.75 4.90 5.58 4.93
Noc / All 4.03 3.62 4.01 4.62 3.13 4.53 3.39 5.58 3.52 4.85 5.58 4.89
Noc / Est 4.03 3.62 4.01 4.62 3.13 4.53 3.39 5.58 3.52 4.85 5.58 4.89
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 3

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 6.37 44.47 9.89 6.99 90.97 14.75 8.07 99.16 16.49 8.90 100.00 17.32
All / Est 6.37 44.47 9.89 6.99 90.97 14.75 8.07 99.16 16.49 8.90 100.00 17.32
Noc / All 6.09 44.47 9.68 6.90 89.42 12.70 6.77 98.88 14.70 7.52 100.00 14.02
Noc / Est 6.09 44.47 9.68 6.90 89.42 12.70 6.77 98.88 14.70 7.52 100.00 14.02
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 4

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.93 5.05 3.28 3.43 46.95 10.65 5.13 65.11 15.08 5.42 65.78 15.43
All / Est 2.93 5.05 3.28 3.43 46.95 10.65 5.13 65.11 15.08 5.42 65.78 15.43
Noc / All 1.90 5.05 2.43 2.06 51.39 10.57 2.53 65.74 14.35 2.67 71.11 14.46
Noc / Est 1.90 5.05 2.43 2.06 51.39 10.57 2.53 65.74 14.35 2.67 71.11 14.46
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 5

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 8.85 6.94 8.68 9.68 6.81 9.42 6.97 0.48 6.39 10.16 7.07 9.88
All / Est 8.85 6.94 8.68 9.68 6.81 9.42 6.97 0.48 6.39 10.16 7.07 9.88
Noc / All 7.88 6.94 7.79 8.64 6.81 8.44 6.61 0.48 5.98 9.15 7.07 8.93
Noc / Est 7.88 6.94 7.79 8.64 6.81 8.44 6.61 0.48 5.98 9.15 7.07 8.93
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 6

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 9.13 5.89 8.79 9.98 5.75 9.54 8.34 2.90 7.77 10.55 7.90 10.27
All / Est 9.13 5.89 8.79 9.98 5.75 9.54 8.34 2.90 7.77 10.55 7.90 10.27
Noc / All 9.00 5.89 8.67 8.62 5.75 8.27 6.80 2.90 6.34 9.05 7.90 8.91
Noc / Est 9.00 5.89 8.67 8.62 5.75 8.27 6.80 2.90 6.34 9.05 7.90 8.91
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 7

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 3.14 10.25 4.53 3.15 10.30 4.55 0.61 64.37 13.09 3.46 64.37 15.38
All / Est 3.14 10.25 4.53 3.15 10.30 4.55 0.61 64.37 13.09 3.46 64.37 15.38
Noc / All 3.12 10.25 4.53 3.14 10.38 4.51 0.61 62.30 12.14 3.44 62.30 14.59
Noc / Est 3.12 10.25 4.53 3.14 10.38 4.51 0.61 62.30 12.14 3.44 62.30 14.59
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 8

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.60 13.48 4.61 2.68 13.50 4.68 0.56 17.58 3.71 3.10 17.58 5.78
All / Est 2.60 13.48 4.61 2.68 13.50 4.68 0.56 17.58 3.71 3.10 17.58 5.78
Noc / All 2.59 13.48 4.60 2.66 13.50 4.66 0.56 17.58 3.71 3.08 17.58 5.76
Noc / Est 2.59 13.48 4.60 2.66 13.50 4.66 0.56 17.58 3.71 3.08 17.58 5.76
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 9

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.86 3.76 3.09 2.87 3.78 3.10 1.29 19.31 5.89 3.83 19.31 7.79
All / Est 2.86 3.76 3.09 2.87 3.78 3.10 1.29 19.31 5.89 3.83 19.31 7.79
Noc / All 2.90 3.95 3.16 2.91 3.97 3.17 1.29 19.31 5.89 3.85 20.16 7.91
Noc / Est 2.90 3.95 3.16 2.91 3.97 3.17 1.29 19.31 5.89 3.85 20.16 7.91
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 10

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.88 7.05 3.83 4.64 8.96 5.63 2.46 25.90 7.82 5.03 25.90 9.79
All / Est 2.88 7.05 3.83 4.64 8.96 5.63 2.46 25.90 7.82 5.03 25.90 9.79
Noc / All 2.92 7.05 3.87 4.64 8.38 5.59 2.41 25.90 8.52 4.82 26.10 10.22
Noc / Est 2.92 7.05 3.87 4.64 8.38 5.59 2.41 25.90 8.52 4.82 26.10 10.22
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 11

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.29 3.51 2.51 2.49 6.36 3.19 2.52 22.44 6.09 2.87 22.44 6.38
All / Est 2.29 3.51 2.51 2.49 6.36 3.19 2.52 22.44 6.09 2.87 22.44 6.38
Noc / All 2.31 3.51 2.53 2.85 6.36 3.52 2.70 22.46 6.68 3.15 23.84 7.10
Noc / Est 2.31 3.51 2.53 2.85 6.36 3.52 2.70 22.46 6.68 3.15 23.84 7.10
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 12

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.47 10.24 2.06 1.67 11.64 2.34 2.59 23.54 4.00 2.66 23.54 4.07
All / Est 1.47 10.24 2.06 1.67 11.64 2.34 2.59 23.54 4.00 2.66 23.54 4.07
Noc / All 1.44 10.24 2.04 1.44 11.64 2.26 1.86 23.54 3.58 1.93 23.54 3.67
Noc / Est 1.44 10.24 2.04 1.44 11.64 2.26 1.86 23.54 3.58 1.93 23.54 3.67
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 13

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.21 4.43 2.48 2.79 17.68 4.62 3.68 17.65 5.40 3.88 21.12 5.99
All / Est 2.21 4.43 2.48 2.79 17.68 4.62 3.68 17.65 5.40 3.88 21.12 5.99
Noc / All 1.81 4.43 2.13 1.63 17.81 3.19 1.85 20.96 4.07 2.01 22.04 3.94
Noc / Est 1.81 4.43 2.13 1.63 17.81 3.19 1.85 20.96 4.07 2.01 22.04 3.94
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 14

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.86 2.81 1.88 2.42 4.38 2.46 3.50 100.00 5.17 3.82 100.00 5.49
All / Est 1.86 2.81 1.88 2.42 4.38 2.46 3.50 100.00 5.17 3.82 100.00 5.49
Noc / All 1.77 2.81 1.79 1.91 4.38 1.96 2.52 100.00 4.55 2.52 100.00 4.58
Noc / Est 1.77 2.81 1.79 1.91 4.38 1.96 2.52 100.00 4.55 2.52 100.00 4.58
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 15

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 5.29 5.36 5.29 7.38 7.79 7.41 9.91 36.67 12.34 10.39 39.26 13.01
All / Est 5.29 5.36 5.29 7.38 7.79 7.41 9.91 36.67 12.34 10.39 39.26 13.01
Noc / All 5.14 5.36 5.16 5.84 7.79 6.07 7.60 36.67 10.94 7.90 39.26 11.59
Noc / Est 5.14 5.36 5.16 5.84 7.79 6.07 7.60 36.67 10.94 7.90 39.26 11.59
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 16

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 7.06 4.88 6.74 9.24 15.37 10.14 10.59 35.56 14.26 11.08 37.41 14.95
All / Est 7.06 4.88 6.74 9.24 15.37 10.14 10.59 35.56 14.26 11.08 37.41 14.95
Noc / All 6.49 4.88 6.25 6.89 15.37 8.46 8.50 35.56 13.36 8.90 37.41 14.18
Noc / Est 6.49 4.88 6.25 6.89 15.37 8.46 8.50 35.56 13.36 8.90 37.41 14.18
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 17

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.25 4.08 2.44 3.36 5.74 3.61 6.00 10.15 6.44 6.61 11.70 7.14
All / Est 2.25 4.08 2.44 3.36 5.74 3.61 6.00 10.15 6.44 6.61 11.70 7.14
Noc / All 2.18 4.08 2.39 3.37 5.74 3.68 4.99 10.15 5.66 5.53 11.70 6.35
Noc / Est 2.18 4.08 2.39 3.37 5.74 3.68 4.99 10.15 5.66 5.53 11.70 6.35
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 18

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 8.99 8.67 8.84 11.65 100.00 53.63 14.52 99.54 54.91 15.56 100.00 55.68
All / Est 8.99 8.67 8.84 11.65 100.00 53.63 14.52 99.54 54.91 15.56 100.00 55.68
Noc / All 8.66 8.67 8.66 9.01 100.00 28.15 11.21 100.00 35.70 12.17 100.00 30.65
Noc / Est 8.66 8.67 8.66 9.01 100.00 28.15 11.21 100.00 35.70 12.17 100.00 30.65
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 19

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.93 8.99 2.73 2.53 9.82 3.36 4.59 16.15 5.90 4.80 21.21 6.66
All / Est 1.93 8.99 2.73 2.53 9.82 3.36 4.59 16.15 5.90 4.80 21.21 6.66
Noc / All 1.94 8.99 2.75 2.65 9.82 3.70 3.38 16.15 5.23 3.58 21.21 6.18
Noc / Est 1.94 8.99 2.75 2.65 9.82 3.70 3.38 16.15 5.23 3.58 21.21 6.18
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error




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