Method

Semi Global Matching + SphereFlow [SGM+SF]


Submitted on 29 Jul. 2015 13:37 by
Andreas Geiger (MPI Tübingen)

Running time:45 min
Environment:16 core @ 3.2 Ghz (C/C++)

Method Description:
Note: We used SGM as depth input for this method. Abstract: We take a new approach to computing dense scene flow between a pair of consecutive RGB-D frames. We exploit the availability of depth data by seeking correspondences with respect to patches specified not as the pixels inside square windows, but as the 3D points that are the inliers of spheres in world space. Our primary contribution is to show that by reasoning in terms of such patches under 6 DoF rigid body motions in 3D, we succeed in obtaining
compelling results at displacements large and small without relying on either of two simplifying assumptions that pervade much of the earlier literature: brightness constancy or local surface planarity. As a consequence of our approach, our output is a dense field of 3D rigid body motions, in contrast
to the 3D translations that are the norm in scene flow. Reasoning in our manner additionally allows us to carry out occlusion handling using a 6 DoF consistency check for the flow computed in both directions and a patchwise silhouette check to help reason about alignments in occlusion areas, and to promote smoothness of the flow fields using an intuitive local rigidity prior. We carry out our optimization in two steps, obtaining a first correspondence field using an adaptation of PatchMatch, and subsequently using alpha-expansion to jointly handle occlusions and perform regularization. We show attractive flow results on challenging synthetic and real-world scenes that push the practical limits of the aforementioned assumptions.
Parameters:
See paper.
Latex Bibtex:
@Article{Hirschmueller2008PAMI,
Title = {Stereo Processing by Semiglobal Matching and Mutual Information},
Author = {Hirschmüller, Heiko},
Journal = {PAMI},
Year = {2008},
Number = {2},
Pages = {328-341},
Volume = {30}
}

@InProceedings{Hornacek2014CVPR,
Title = {{SphereFlow:} 6 {DoF} Scene Flow from {RGB-D} Pairs},
Author = {Hornacek, Michael and Fitzgibbon, Andrew and Rother, Carsten},
Booktitle = {CVPR},
Year = {2014}
}

Detailed Results

This page provides detailed results for the method(s) selected. For the first 20 test images, the percentage of erroneous pixels is depicted in the table. We use the error metric described in Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles (CVPR 2015), which considers a pixel to be correctly estimated if the disparity or flow end-point error is <3px or <5% (for scene flow this criterion needs to be fulfilled for both disparity maps and the flow map). Underneath, the left input image, the estimated results and the error maps are shown (for disp_0/disp_1/flow/scene_flow, respectively). The error map uses the log-color scale described in Object Scene Flow for Autonomous Vehicles (CVPR 2015), depicting correct estimates (<3px or <5% error) in blue and wrong estimates in red color tones. Dark regions in the error images denote the occluded pixels which fall outside the image boundaries. The false color maps of the results are scaled to the largest ground truth disparity values / flow magnitudes.

Test Set Average

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 5.15 15.29 6.84 14.10 23.13 15.60 20.91 25.50 21.67 23.09 34.46 24.98
All / Est 5.15 15.29 6.84 14.10 23.13 15.60 20.91 25.50 21.67 23.09 34.46 24.98
Noc / All 4.75 14.22 6.31 8.34 18.71 10.20 13.36 21.78 14.89 15.28 29.68 17.86
Noc / Est 4.75 14.22 6.31 8.34 18.71 10.20 13.36 21.78 14.89 15.28 29.68 17.86
This table as LaTeX

Test Image 0

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 4.82 5.59 4.93 6.91 14.22 7.91 14.49 72.46 22.44 16.75 73.94 24.60
All / Est 4.82 5.59 4.93 6.91 14.22 7.91 14.49 72.46 22.44 16.75 73.94 24.60
Noc / All 4.73 5.59 4.85 5.37 14.22 6.74 11.55 72.46 20.78 13.33 73.94 22.71
Noc / Est 4.73 5.59 4.85 5.37 14.22 6.74 11.55 72.46 20.78 13.33 73.94 22.71
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 1

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 4.06 13.61 5.13 5.16 11.79 5.90 10.92 30.10 13.06 12.76 33.20 15.04
All / Est 4.06 13.61 5.13 5.16 11.79 5.90 10.92 30.10 13.06 12.76 33.20 15.04
Noc / All 3.92 13.61 5.02 4.71 11.79 5.61 9.26 30.10 11.83 10.93 33.20 13.74
Noc / Est 3.92 13.61 5.02 4.71 11.79 5.61 9.26 30.10 11.83 10.93 33.20 13.74
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 2

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 5.21 11.10 5.50 10.97 10.84 10.96 17.73 18.23 17.76 21.40 20.70 21.37
All / Est 5.21 11.10 5.50 10.97 10.84 10.96 17.73 18.23 17.76 21.40 20.70 21.37
Noc / All 4.55 11.10 4.87 8.15 10.84 8.31 12.00 18.23 12.36 15.51 20.70 15.81
Noc / Est 4.55 11.10 4.87 8.15 10.84 8.31 12.00 18.23 12.36 15.51 20.70 15.81
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 3

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 6.03 25.22 7.81 14.22 94.65 21.65 21.75 100.00 28.98 23.28 100.00 30.37
All / Est 6.03 25.22 7.81 14.22 94.65 21.65 21.75 100.00 28.98 23.28 100.00 30.37
Noc / All 5.54 25.22 7.38 8.13 91.59 14.00 13.20 100.00 20.68 14.25 100.00 20.28
Noc / Est 5.54 25.22 7.38 8.13 91.59 14.00 13.20 100.00 20.68 14.25 100.00 20.28
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 4

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 7.41 15.56 8.76 30.01 38.40 31.40 38.46 61.34 42.26 39.74 62.01 43.44
All / Est 7.41 15.56 8.76 30.01 38.40 31.40 38.46 61.34 42.26 39.74 62.01 43.44
Noc / All 6.40 15.56 7.95 23.46 32.66 25.04 31.80 59.97 37.07 32.44 55.92 36.49
Noc / Est 6.40 15.56 7.95 23.46 32.66 25.04 31.80 59.97 37.07 32.44 55.92 36.49
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 5

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 15.34 13.91 15.21 20.62 13.61 19.99 20.50 4.38 19.05 28.78 14.50 27.50
All / Est 15.34 13.91 15.21 20.62 13.61 19.99 20.50 4.38 19.05 28.78 14.50 27.50
Noc / All 13.89 13.91 13.89 17.30 13.61 16.91 15.96 4.38 14.77 23.91 14.50 22.91
Noc / Est 13.89 13.91 13.89 17.30 13.61 16.91 15.96 4.38 14.77 23.91 14.50 22.91
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 6

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 12.72 11.75 12.62 18.66 14.34 18.21 25.50 0.86 22.90 31.52 14.62 29.74
All / Est 12.72 11.75 12.62 18.66 14.34 18.21 25.50 0.86 22.90 31.52 14.62 29.74
Noc / All 12.42 11.75 12.35 16.05 14.34 15.84 20.91 0.86 18.52 27.17 14.62 25.64
Noc / Est 12.42 11.75 12.35 16.05 14.34 15.84 20.91 0.86 18.52 27.17 14.62 25.64
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 7

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.19 12.76 4.26 2.14 13.25 4.31 1.55 77.74 16.46 3.72 77.74 18.20
All / Est 2.19 12.76 4.26 2.14 13.25 4.31 1.55 77.74 16.46 3.72 77.74 18.20
Noc / All 2.19 12.76 4.29 2.17 13.74 4.36 1.55 76.99 15.65 3.65 76.99 17.54
Noc / Est 2.19 12.76 4.29 2.17 13.74 4.36 1.55 76.99 15.65 3.65 76.99 17.54
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 8

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.99 6.37 2.80 1.89 7.19 2.87 2.11 24.27 6.20 4.20 25.04 8.04
All / Est 1.99 6.37 2.80 1.89 7.19 2.87 2.11 24.27 6.20 4.20 25.04 8.04
Noc / All 1.98 6.37 2.79 1.89 7.19 2.87 2.11 24.27 6.20 4.19 25.04 8.05
Noc / Est 1.98 6.37 2.79 1.89 7.19 2.87 2.11 24.27 6.20 4.19 25.04 8.05
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 9

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.59 5.26 3.27 2.40 5.94 3.30 1.09 61.00 16.40 3.72 62.40 18.71
All / Est 2.59 5.26 3.27 2.40 5.94 3.30 1.09 61.00 16.40 3.72 62.40 18.71
Noc / All 2.58 5.51 3.31 2.41 6.23 3.36 1.09 61.00 16.40 3.66 64.97 18.92
Noc / Est 2.58 5.51 3.31 2.41 6.23 3.36 1.09 61.00 16.40 3.66 64.97 18.92
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 10

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 3.38 6.86 4.17 7.23 7.71 7.34 13.08 13.17 13.10 16.27 14.98 15.97
All / Est 3.38 6.86 4.17 7.23 7.71 7.34 13.08 13.17 13.10 16.27 14.98 15.97
Noc / All 3.38 6.86 4.19 6.06 6.84 6.26 8.19 13.17 9.49 11.21 14.10 11.95
Noc / Est 3.38 6.86 4.19 6.06 6.84 6.26 8.19 13.17 9.49 11.21 14.10 11.95
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 11

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.00 3.05 2.19 4.44 8.76 5.21 10.99 12.75 11.31 11.98 16.45 12.78
All / Est 2.00 3.05 2.19 4.44 8.76 5.21 10.99 12.75 11.31 11.98 16.45 12.78
Noc / All 1.97 3.05 2.16 3.80 9.38 4.86 6.97 12.69 8.12 7.85 14.54 9.13
Noc / Est 1.97 3.05 2.16 3.80 9.38 4.86 6.97 12.69 8.12 7.85 14.54 9.13
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 12

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.44 3.74 1.60 5.74 4.90 5.68 13.55 5.16 12.98 13.94 6.71 13.46
All / Est 1.44 3.74 1.60 5.74 4.90 5.68 13.55 5.16 12.98 13.94 6.71 13.46
Noc / All 1.41 3.74 1.57 1.90 4.90 2.14 7.03 5.16 6.88 7.05 6.71 7.02
Noc / Est 1.41 3.74 1.57 1.90 4.90 2.14 7.03 5.16 6.88 7.05 6.71 7.02
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 13

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.78 5.01 2.17 3.76 18.27 5.55 12.76 17.22 13.31 13.32 25.85 14.86
All / Est 1.78 5.01 2.17 3.76 18.27 5.55 12.76 17.22 13.31 13.32 25.85 14.86
Noc / All 1.62 5.01 2.04 1.78 13.31 2.89 5.53 15.99 6.75 5.57 21.25 7.08
Noc / Est 1.62 5.01 2.04 1.78 13.31 2.89 5.53 15.99 6.75 5.57 21.25 7.08
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 14

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.89 7.14 1.98 4.97 8.38 5.02 13.38 6.97 13.27 14.21 8.43 14.11
All / Est 1.89 7.14 1.98 4.97 8.38 5.02 13.38 6.97 13.27 14.21 8.43 14.11
Noc / All 1.79 7.14 1.88 2.25 8.38 2.38 6.38 6.97 6.39 6.54 8.43 6.58
Noc / Est 1.79 7.14 1.88 2.25 8.38 2.38 6.38 6.97 6.39 6.54 8.43 6.58
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 15

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 5.79 5.66 5.78 21.32 8.65 20.17 28.59 9.28 26.84 29.94 12.55 28.36
All / Est 5.79 5.66 5.78 21.32 8.65 20.17 28.59 9.28 26.84 29.94 12.55 28.36
Noc / All 5.81 5.66 5.80 12.00 8.65 11.61 15.85 9.28 15.09 17.83 12.55 17.20
Noc / Est 5.81 5.66 5.80 12.00 8.65 11.61 15.85 9.28 15.09 17.83 12.55 17.20
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 16

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 7.07 7.85 7.19 24.58 16.88 23.45 32.71 35.81 33.17 34.12 40.68 35.08
All / Est 7.07 7.85 7.19 24.58 16.88 23.45 32.71 35.81 33.17 34.12 40.68 35.08
Noc / All 6.48 7.85 6.68 10.75 16.88 11.88 19.55 35.81 22.48 20.78 40.68 24.46
Noc / Est 6.48 7.85 6.68 10.75 16.88 11.88 19.55 35.81 22.48 20.78 40.68 24.46
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 17

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 2.29 3.10 2.37 12.68 8.60 12.25 21.36 19.31 21.14 21.95 20.60 21.81
All / Est 2.29 3.10 2.37 12.68 8.60 12.25 21.36 19.31 21.14 21.95 20.60 21.81
Noc / All 2.04 3.10 2.15 5.11 8.60 5.57 10.80 19.31 11.90 11.09 20.60 12.35
Noc / Est 2.04 3.10 2.15 5.11 8.60 5.57 10.80 19.31 11.90 11.09 20.60 12.35
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 18

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 9.90 14.81 12.23 32.97 86.66 58.48 37.44 92.78 63.73 38.72 96.55 66.19
All / Est 9.90 14.81 12.23 32.97 86.66 58.48 37.44 92.78 63.73 38.72 96.55 66.19
Noc / All 9.65 14.81 12.13 17.08 58.99 25.90 21.29 77.77 36.87 22.40 86.44 35.87
Noc / Est 9.65 14.81 12.13 17.08 58.99 25.90 21.29 77.77 36.87 22.40 86.44 35.87
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error


Test Image 19

Error D1-bg D1-fg D1-all D2-bg D2-fg D2-all Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all SF-bg SF-fg SF-all
All / All 1.97 5.60 2.38 14.13 8.39 13.48 22.13 17.30 21.58 22.59 19.65 22.25
All / Est 1.97 5.60 2.38 14.13 8.39 13.48 22.13 17.30 21.58 22.59 19.65 22.25
Noc / All 1.95 5.60 2.37 4.72 8.39 5.26 9.42 17.30 10.56 9.48 19.65 10.97
Noc / Est 1.95 5.60 2.37 4.72 8.39 5.26 9.42 17.30 10.56 9.48 19.65 10.97
This table as LaTeX

Input Image

D1 Result

D1 Error

D2 Result

D2 Error

Flow Result

Flow Error

Scene Flow Error




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